Ben and Dion are planning to use a similar format for upcoming episodes, and I’m thrilled—I think it works really well, providing a continuity and depth of analysis that you just don’t get from a single interview. Bravo, guys!
This video from the center for IT Policy at Princeton University is a crystal-clear demonstration of why purely electronic voting machines are a terrible idea for our country. The video deals with a particular kind of machine, made by Diebold. But the strong likelihood is that any electronic, software-controlled voting machine without a voter-verifiable paper trail is vulnerable to at least some of the kinds of attacks shown in the video.
I’m not the least surprised by this, and I don’t know many serious programmers who will be. Programmers and computer scientists have been raising a stink about electronic voting machines for several years, but it’s been difficult to explain to non-programmers the full extent of the danger. It’s nice to have a video that shows the complete cycle: how the machine can be subverted, how it can steal votes, and how the rogue software can cover its tracks. (The one thing about the video that did surprise me, by the way, was how quickly and easily the physical act of subverting the machine can be accomplished.)
Beyond this one example, though, are more dangers. I don’t believe that any such machine—any machine without a voter-verifiable paper trail—could be sufficiently secure for the purpose, even in principle. And that’s not just a hunch. I have good reasons for believing that it’s not possible to make such a machine secure enough to be entrusted with our votes.
The paper that’s available on the page with the video describes in detail the research that was performed, and the findings. It unavoidably contains some technical jargon, from the fields of software and security. Overall, though, it’s quite accessible, and I don’t think you need to be either a computer or a security expert to understand the issues. There’s also an executive summary that hits all the highlights.
Two years ago, when I went to vote, I was not amused to find myself having to vote on one of these very machines. In light of that, though, I most definitely was amused by the “My Vote Counted” sticker I was given as I left, and I felt compelled to augment the sticker’s message. I’ll probably have to vote on the same machines again in a couple months. But I hope we’ll turn toward more secure, reliable equipment for future elections.
Because I was pressed for time yesterday, I ended my blog on Ruby VMs with a little teaser about other possibilities: “And there is still room for serious creativity there. I’ll write more about that soon.” About two hours later, Avi Bryant posted essentially the same thing I was going to say.
Avi has blogged before about the idea of implementing Ruby on an existing, fast Smalltalk VM (the object models of the two languages are very, very close; the biggest hurdle would be Ruby’s richer method argument handling).
But, as Avi points out, the open-source availability of Strongtalk, including the VM implementation, is a big development. Although it’s now ten-year-old technology, Strongtalk nevertheless represents the state of the art in dynamic language implementation. Strongtalks basic principles of operation have been widely known for years (although apparently not by Joel), but actual implementations of those ideas have all been in proprietary products. (The Hotspot source is available, but not as widely as a true open-source products.) For OSS developers who want to learn, the closest they could get to a cutting-edge dynamic language implementation has been Self. But although the techniques in Strongtalk originated in Self, the Strongtalk team took them a lot farther.
Sun’s HotSpot VM for Java already incorporates these techniques, so JRuby is already on track to take advantage of them. I don’t know that much about the CLR, but it wouldn’t surprise me to learn that it uses similar ideas, which bodes well for IronPython and an eventual Ruby implementation for the CLR. But there’s still a performance limitation imposed by the mismatch between object models, and the unavoidable mapping layer that implements one atop the other.
Mr. Malsky, I predict that in three years, Ruby will have performance rivaling Strongtalk’s—whether by someone adapting Strongtalk itself to run Ruby, or by mining it for techniques that can be rolled into YARV or some other VM project.
(Well, maybe three years is a bit optimistic. But I can hope.)
Last year at FOSCON (and the next day at OSCON), _why showed the first animated installments of his “Least Surprised” cartoons, to the delight of all present. In one of them, Time.now.is_a? MagicTime, Malsky asked his audience to imagine what Ruby will be like in three years. The first suggestion? “Maybe we’ll have our own virtual machine by then.” Malsky was appalled. “No, no! Come on, guys! Three years? Ruby will have ten virtual machines built inside every metaclass by then. Be creative!”
For several of us sitting in the back, “ten virtual machines built inside every metaclass” was one of the biggest laugh lines of the evening.
Of course, it’s still absurd—but maybe only by two or three orders of magnitude instead of four. I’m amazed at what’s happening in the world of Ruby and high-performance virtual machines. I’m personally aware of seven (!) projects to either build a Ruby VM or implement Ruby on an existing VM:
Of course, there’s YARV.
- JRuby, which has been around for a long time as a Ruby interpreter, is starting to become a true bytecode compiler in the Jython style.
- There are no less than three projects to implement Ruby on the .Net CLR, building on the lessons of IronPython.
- The Cardinal project, to implement Ruby on Parrot, has been restarted by Kevin Tew. (And Parrot itself is making serious progress again, after some difficulties.)
- Finally, there’s a project underway to implement Ruby on Nicolas Cannasse’s Neko VM.
Naturally, there’ll be some winnowing of these options over time. But it seems clear that the Ruby community will end up with at least three solid VM options: YARV, JRuby and some variety of Ruby on the CLR. The core Ruby developers are strongly committed to YARV. The CLR version is too important not to do (and to my mind, last week’s announcement of IronPython 1.0, still as an open source project, makes a mature Ruby implementation on the CLR even more likely). And of course, Sun has now hired the two main JRuby developers, throwing at least some of their weight behind that project.
Come on, guys! Three years? Ruby will have three virtual machines that’ll run in every kind of IT environment by then. Be creative!
(And there is still room for serious creativity there. I’ll write more about that soon.)
I’ve been quiet here for a while. Mostly I’ve just been busy, but the reason I’ve been so busy is that the summer was one disaster after another.
OK, that’s not quite fair. There was a lot of good stuff this summer (including RailsConf and OSCON, which were both terrific), and sometimes I went for several days at a stretch without anything bad happening. But it did seem that every time I turned around, there was some new setback.
- I started the summer with a recurrence of a strange networking problem on my laptop that had plagued me earlier in the year. This time I finally found the cause: Salling Clicker, left running in a state where it was searching for my phone. Apparently Bluetooth and AirPort share enough of the networking stack that one can really interfere with the other. But I lost a couple days to messing around with this before I finally figured things out and got it fixed.
- In early July, my wife’s grandmother died. She was a wonderful lady, and very dear to me; of course, that week was difficult for the whole family.
- Two weeks later, I got hit hard by a strep infection. I nearly had to cancel my appearance at the Des Moines NFJS, but started feeling better just in time. (I would have hated canceling, because I’d already had to skip the Austin show due to the funeral.)
- But then again, maybe I should’ve canceled, because just as I stood up to give my first talk in Des Moines, my hard drive crashed. It was fun getting through five talks without a laptop! (Eitan Suez and a couple of the attendees lent me their laptops for three of the talks, which helped a lot.) Due to my travel schedule, my backups were a bit out of date, so I lost about 4 weeks of email.
- I just barely got the new drive installed, and the restore completed, before I had to take off for OSCON. And when I got back, my DSL service was out. It was out for 16 days! Needless to say, a change in ISP is in the works.
- Two weeks ago, I came down with strep again. Because I’d had strep so recently, this time they gave me a really powerful antibiotic, which makes sense, and I felt better pretty quickly. Unfortunately, they didn’t really warn me about that, so I didn’t take some necessary precautions, bringing us to:
- Now I have thrush. Yucko.
Oh well … I’ll stop complaining now, and I’ll start writing about more pleasant things soon. :-)